Saturday, May 23, 2020
No name is more associated with Spanish literatureÃ¢â¬âand perhaps with classic literature in generalÃ¢â¬âthan that of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. He was the author of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, which is sometimes referred to as the first European novel and which has been translated into nearly every major language, making it one of the most widely distributed books after the Bible. Cervantes Contribution to Literature Although few people in the English-speaking world have read Don Quijote in its original Spanish, it nevertheless has had its influence on the English language, giving us expressions such as the pot calling the kettle black, tilting at windmills, a wild-goose chase and the skys the limit. Also, our word quixotic originated from the name of the title character. (Quijote is often spelled as Quixote.) Despite his immense contributions to world literature, Cervantes never became wealthy as a result of his work, and not much is known about the early parts of his life. He was born in 1547 as the son of surgeon Rodrigo de Cervantes in AlcalÃ ¡ de Henares, a small town near Madrid; it is believed that his mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was the descendant of Jews who had converted to Christianity. A Brief Biography of Cervantes As a young boy Cervantes moved from town to town as his father sought work; later he would study in Madrid under Juan LÃ ³pez de Hoyos, a well-known humanist, and in 1570 he went to Rome to study. Ever loyal to Spain, Cervantes joined a Spanish regiment in Naples and received a wound in a battle at Lepanco that permanently injured his left hand. As a result, he picked up the nickname of el manco de Lepanto (the cripple of Lepanco). His battle injury was only the first of Cervantes troubles. He and his brother Rodrigo were on a ship that was captured by pirates in 1575. It wasnt until five years later that Cervantes was released Ã¢â¬â but only after four unsuccessful escape attempts and after his family and friends raised 500 escudos, an enormous sum of money that would drain the family financially, as ransom. Cervantes first play, Los tratos de Argel (The Treatments of Algiers), was based on his experiences as a captive, as was the later Los baÃ ±os de Argel (The Baths of Algiers). In 1584 Cervantes married the much younger Catalina de Salazar y Palacios; they had no children, although he had a daughter from an affair with an actress. A few years later, Cervantes left his wife, faced severe financial difficulties, and was jailed at least three times (once as a murder suspect, although there was insufficient evidence to try him). He eventually settled in Madrid in 1606, shortly after the first part of Don Quijote was published. Although publication of the novel didnt make Cervantes rich, it eased his financial burden and gave him recognition and the ability to devote more time to writing. He published the second part of Don Quijote in 1615 and wrote dozens of other plays, short stories, novels, and poems (although many critics have little good to say about his poetry). Cervantes final novel was Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda (The Exploits of Persiles and Sigismunda), published three days before his death on April 23, 1616. Coincidentally, Cervantes date of death is the same as William Shakespeares, although in reality Cervantes death came 10 days sooner because Spain and England used different calendars at the time. Quick Ã¢â¬â name a fictional character from a literary work written about 400 years ago. Since youre reading this page, you probably had little difficulty coming up with Don Quijote, the title character of Miguel de Cervantes famous novel. But how many others could you name? Except for characters developed by William Shakespeare, probably few or none. At least in Western cultures, Cervantes pioneering novel, El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha, is one of the few that has been popular for so long. It has been translated into nearly every major language, inspired some 40 motion pictures, and added words and phrases to our vocabulary. In the English-speaking world, Quijote is easily the most well-known literary figure who was the product of a non-English-speaking author in the past 500 years. Clearly, Quijotes character has endured, even if few people today read the entire novel except as a part of college coursework. Why? Perhaps it is because there is something in most of us that, like Quijote, cant always distinguish totally between reality and the imagination. Perhaps its because of our idealistic ambitions, and we like seeing someone continuing to strive despite the disappointments of reality. Perhaps its simply because we can laugh at a part of ourselves in the numerous humorous incidents that happen during Quijotes life. A Quick Look at Don Quixote Here is a brief overview of the novel that might give you some idea what to expect if you decide to tackle Cervantes monumental work: Plot Summary The title character, a middle-aged gentleman from the La Mancha region of Spain, becomes enchanted with the idea of chivalry and decides to seek adventure. Eventually, he is accompanied by a sidekick, Sancho Panza. With a dilapidated horse and equipment, together they seek glory, adventure, often in the honor of Dulcinea, Quijotes love. Quijote doesnt always act honorably, however, and neither do many of the other minor characters in the novel. Eventually Quijote is brought down to reality and dies shortly thereafter. Major Characters The title character, Don Quijote, is far from static; indeed, he reinvents himself several times. He often is a victim of his own delusions and undergoes metamorphoses as he gains or loses touch with reality. The sidekick, Sancho Panza, may be the most complex figure in the novel. Not particularly sophisticated, Panza struggles with his attitudes toward Quijote and eventually becomes his most loyal companion despite repeated arguments. Dulcinea is the character that is never seen, for she was born in Quijotes imagination (although modeled after a real person). Novel Structure Quijotes novel, while not the first novel written, nevertheless had little on which it could be modeled. Modern readers may find the episodic novel too long and redundant as well as inconsistent in style. Some of the novels quirks are intentional (in fact, some portions of the latter parts of the book were written in response to public comments on the portion that was published first), while others are products of the times. Reference: Proyecto Cervantes, Miguel de Cervantes 1547-1616, Hispanos Famosos. Quick Takeaways Miguel de Cervantes was one of the most influential writers of all times, writing the first major European novel and contributing to both the Spanish and English languages.Although known best for Don Quijote, Cervantes also wrote dozens of other novels, short stories, poems, and plays.The main characters of Don Quijote are the title character; his sidekick, Sancho Panza; and Dulcinea, who lives in Quijotes imagination.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Alternative energy can be defined as Energy, as solar, wind, or nuclear energy, that can replace or supplement traditional fossil-fuel sources, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. When thinking about alternative energy sources we generally focus on the main types: nuclear, solar, wind, and hydroelectric. These are things that mainly do not cause pollution and are very environmentally friendly (Alternative Energy). Alternative energy is thought to be renewable and Ã¢â¬Å"free.Ã¢â¬ Biomass Energy, Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, and Hydroelectric Energy all have very low carbon emissions compared to the conventional energy sources (Alternative Energy). With using the alternative energy route instead of conventional energy sources, we can help to keep this earth going for a very long time. So how are all of these things generated? Nuclear energy is fueled from a power plant, much like fossil fuels. To start, water is first turned into steam which helps to produce elect ricity. The heat that is used to make the steam out of the water is what makes the uranium atoms split; this is called fission. Here in the United States we have two types of nuclear reactors, Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor. The first type is to help keep the water under a lot of pressure to make it heat up, but does not allow it to boil. The water then travels though a number of tubes that the water can steam up in which helps to turn the turbine generators. The second type of waterShow MoreRelatedAlternative Energy : Renewable Energy966 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlternative Energy. What is it? Alternative energy: energy generated in ways that do not deplete natural resources or harm the environment, avoiding the use of fossil fuels and nuclear power (Google Definition). ALternative energy is the way to go: it is cleaner than Fossil Fuels and Nuclear Power, it works with the environment, and is benefitial to the community. First off, the majority of the world, 80% of the United States uses Nuclear power or Fossil Fuels as a source of energy and electricityRead MoreRenewable Energy : Alternative Energy1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlternative energy includes forms that can be continuously renewed without the concern of the supply running out. Over the last two centuries, renewable energy has become much more popular, worldwide. Forms of renewable energy most popularly include solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Laws and regulations are constantly created to improve the forms of energy we use and the amount in which each form creates. Alternative energy is also referred to as renewable, and received its name from being theRead MoreAlternative Energy : Renewable Energy1785 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagescurrent energy usage, which is fossil fuels, is not sustainable and carries negative effects to the environment. However nothing is perfect, even renewable energy has its fair share of disadvantages. Can alternative (reusable) energy sources such as nuclear, hydrogen, biofuels or solar energy meet the energy demands needed by humans to carry out their everyday tasks such as electricity, commuting, and so on better than fossil fuels such as coal and oil which creates a mast amount of energy today.Read MoreAlternative Energy And Renewable Energy1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout the 20th and 21st century, our knowledge about the environment and energy has steadily grown, as well as our dependence on them. Nowadays, power and electricity are in every facet of our daily lives. Due to this, we overlook several negative effects our traditional use of fossil fuels have caused. Fossil fuels are fuel deposits that were formed hundreds of millions of years ago, which is where the term fossil fuels come from. The two most common fossil fuels currently in use are coal andRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1710 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconcern for our environment, alternative energy ha s become a source of energy that is an alternative to the problem that these fossil fuels have caused our Earth. Alternative energy are renewable and is considered to be free energy sources (Alternative Energy). All alternative energy sources have lower carbon emissions when being compared to conventional energy sources. These sources include Biomass Energy, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Hydroelectric Energy (Alternative Energy). With the use of recyclingRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRenewable energy has become a widely popular topic in society. With the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, scientist are looking to natural and renewable resources to create a means to produce sustainable energy. There are many alternative energy sources that have proven useful in the past couple of years. Some of the alternative energy sources are not only more useful than others but have proven to be easier to attain and also prove to create a more substantial amount of energy. Today, the most widelyRead MoreAlternative Sources Of Energy For Renewable Energy1766 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbstract Majority of electricity generated in New Zealand are mainly from renewable source of energy that are naturally occurring. These source of energy are not consumed when converted hence they will not be depleted, and they are constantly reusable and replenish naturally. Increase in research and investment toward renewable energy will benefit New Zealand society as it will generate less pollution, and more jobs opportunities will emerge. Furthermore it will benefit New Zealand by reinforcingRead MoreAlternative Energy Solutions For Renewable Energy1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesunderdeveloped technology and overlooked industry. There is much debate on whether any alternative energy solutions are able to effectively replace fossil fuels. Even if they are, we are then faced with the problem of how renewable energy programs could be implemented and improved. There are many aspects of this debate to consider, including energy demand, financial support, and ecological factors. The push for altern ative energies is essential and the need is eminent, therefore government subsidization shouldRead MoreAlternative Energy Sources For Renewable Energy1466 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesseeking new forms of energy that will provide clean energy and also preserve Earth s lifespan. The use of renewable and non-renewable resources has been a major controversy throughout history; renewable energy such as wind power has been the main focus of this issue. Many would believe wind energy is the best renewable power source because it is the cleanest and most efficient, whereas, others view wind energy as a time bomb that will soon destroy the planet. Alternative energy sources should replaceRead MoreRenewable Energy : Alternative Energy Sources1906 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNon- Renewable Energy These energy sources are very efficient in the way they work and provide for our needs. Unfortunately, there are two immense disadvantages for fossil fuels and non-renewable resources. They are named non renewable for a reason, the process that these resources go through literally takes millions of years for them to be useful for our needs. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to recognize there is a finite planetary quantity of each nonrenewable resource that can be recovered economically. In theory,
Monday, May 11, 2020
Government: A Profound Leader Since the being of time, humans have sought out law, or government. Governments have been set in place all throughout the world to try to maintain peace and order. As easy as it sounds, governments can be demolished without the right leader. However, that is the catch, what makes a good leader? Niccolo MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Qualities of the PrinceÃ¢â¬ and Lao-TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Tao-te ChingÃ¢â¬ gives some ideas on how a leader should control their government. Although MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s and Lao-TzuÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas do not quite go hand and hand, there are some similarities. They both spoke similarly on how people should feel about their leader. Lao-Tzu views one of the best qualities of a leader is being loved by his people. On the other hand, Machiavelli believes the best is to be loved and feared, but sense he thinks that is impossible he had rather just be feared. Machiavelli and Lao-Tzu are more opposite than alike. According to Machiavelli, war should be a p rofession of a prince. He suggested a prince to think about war all the time and know the surroundings constantly. However, Lao-Tzu suggests a leader not to force war on anyone because the outcome will result in revenge and not to waste time preparing for war. Also, they had different views on what to do with their money. Machiavelli insisted on saving his income for preparation of war, whereas Lao-Tzu believed in sharing his money throughout the people. Although Machiavelli and Lao-Tzu would probably get inShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words Ã |Ã 115 PagesORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS: Notes and essays for the workshop to be held on 15th - 16th Novemeber 2007 at The Marriot Hotel Slough Berkshire SL3 8PT Dr. Lesley Prince, C.Psychol., AFBPsS University of Birmingham November 2007 Ã © Dr. Lesley Prince 2007. Organisational Analysis: Notes and Essays Page i Page ii Please do not attempt to eat these notes. CONTENTS Introduction to the Workshop Topics And Themes The Nature and Scope of Organisation Theory Levels of Analysis The Metaphorical
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Reasons to support thesis First of all, we will consider the very word motivation. Motivation can be defined as an incentive. When we discuss students having the motivation to learn, we may consider them having the incentive to learn. Do students today have the incentive to learn? Many people claim that they do not and that the lack of motivation is increasingly becoming worse and worse in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The belief that society has unknowingly created for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s students is that there is a separation between education that is taught in schools and that which is learned outside of schools. Children view these things as two different worlds. There is the school world, and the real world. Many children tend to believe that theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Students want teachers to be interested in them personally and academically. Why is this important? People tend to be attracted to others who seem interested in them and like them. It is reaffirming to be accepted and valuedÃ¢â¬ (Morganett). There are many activities that teachers can use that incorporate the students so that they feel accepted and appreciated as an individual and as a whole. Teachers may take the time to talk with the students one-on-one or in a group or as a whole. The teacher may want to ask the children to read about a current issue or story and ask them how they feel or what they think. It is important while doing the exercise that the teacher finds out where the children stand on the topic because it allows them to express themselves more openly and it allows them to share their opinion with others rather than just answering with facts. Another idea would be to get involved in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives outside of school by asking them what their family is like or what they did on vacation. Activities like these allow the children to believe that the teacher is interested in their lives and in them as a person, not just as a students. Elements of a strong teacher-student relationship There are many ways in which the teacher can get involved with the children one-on-one. Take time while the kids are working on a class assignment but make sure that each child is given attention.Show MoreRelatedWhy Did Claim Is True?860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsists of an introduction, has body paragraphs that supports each claim, and ends with a conclusion. Even though all of these parts of the essay are critical to the essays writing process, yet the most significant part of the essay is the thesis statement because it sets up the initial structure of the paper; therefore, the thesis creates the main claim of the essay which is followed by two reasons of why that claim is true, by setting up the thesis this way the writer then has the material to constructRead MoreOutline Of The Oklahoma City Bombing1665 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMuskanÃ HossainÃ Ã AmericanÃ Terror:Ã TheÃ OklahomaÃ CityÃ BombingÃ cementsÃ terrorismÃ intoÃ theÃ mindsÃ ofÃ citizensÃ Ã Ã Thesis:Ã DueÃ toÃ theÃ OklahomaÃ CityÃ Bombing,Ã U.S.Ã citizensÃ areÃ correctedÃ ofÃ theirÃ stereotypicalÃ thoughtsÃ towardsÃ terrorism;Ã TerroristsÃ arenÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ commonlyÃ MuslimsÃ orÃ foreignÃ enemies.Ã Ã I. OverviewÃ Ã II. TheÃ significanceÃ ofÃ theÃ OklahomaÃ CityÃ BombingÃ A. ControversiesÃ thatÃ aroseÃ B. QuestionsÃ thoughtÃ andÃ askedÃ byÃ theÃ citizensÃ C. ImpactÃ towardsÃ theÃ FederalÃ GovernmentÃ D. Ã HowÃ itÃ shookÃ theÃ ilRead MoreEssay Outline Practice982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesideas in your thesis statement. Ã¯ ® saves time for writers Ã¯ ® Preparing an outline can take time, but you will be able to write the rough draft of your essay more quickly Outline format Essay Outline I. Introduction Thesis: _____________________ II. Body Paragraph #1- Topic Sentence: _____________ A. supporting idea reasons, examples B. supporting idea reasons, examples III. Body Paragraph #2- Topic Sentence: ____________ A. supporting idea reasons, examples B. supporting idea reasons, examplesRead MoreComplaint Speech1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesanother form of personal expression (complaining!) that is just as natural as storytelling, but requires a bit more analysis and preparation. We will be applying the basics of organization, outlining, introductions, conclusions, transitions, and support while continuing to practice delivery and audience adaptation. This is also an opportunity to experiment with visual aids. Guidelines: Topic/Purpose: The tone/motivation should be a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"frustrated but able to laugh about itÃ¢â¬ (like comediansRead MoreDinner With Skeptics Behind The World That Makes No Sense, By Jeff, Joplin : College Press1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesassignment for Biblical Worldview. Dinner with Skeptics is an account of a conversation Jeff had with a group of skeptics. A missionary for many years, Jeff is currently Senior Pastor at ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s Church of the Valley in San Dimas, California. THESIS: Written to dispel skepticism in God, Jeff discusses common arguments against the existence of God such as why there is evil in the world if there is a good God? Why if there is a good, kind, gracious God, then why is there so much suffering inRead MoreThe Importance Of Ethos Pathos And Logos871 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesformulated thesis statement, as a thesis will set the tone for the essay and allow points to flow from one to another. The tone of an essay leads the reader in a direction that guides them to have a specific opinion or strong emotion that is provoked at the end of the essay. This tone is well set by the thesis statement at the end of the introduction to the paper, this thesis will be the start of what makes the essay. In the few words a thesis will contain a claim and two points that support the claimRead MoreUnderstanding Morality in Henrik Ibsens The Dolls House and Other Similar Stories1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestime. Such people do whatever they wish to do without the fear of being criticized. The essay is based on The Doll House play by Henrik Ibsen. However, other similar stories that support thesis statement include; The story of an Hour by Kate Chopin and The Stranger by Albert Camus. Thesis Statement The thesis statement is that, moral people are not the people who follow rules, laws and society norms. Moral people do things wholeheartedly, selflessly for the once they love even though theyRead MoreThe Moral Principles Of Society Share Universal Laws Between One Another, Or Is It Based Solely On Each852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthere any basic moral principle that apply itself to all people, all cultures at all times no matter the situation, the second question was were there any argument that can be given to support or contradict the different versions of ethical relativism, and the last question is any of the arguments qualified to support the each of the arguments? The main purpose of this essay is to determine whether or not all society share universal laws between one another, or is it based solely on each culture andRead MoreThe Fall Of The Roman Empire987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoutcome of the fall of Rome in Britain. At first to answer these questions I had to find evidence re lating to the connection between roams fall and Britain s essential reason in helping speed up the process. But for my first research paper on this topic I had problems when approaching the essential question and finding support to my thesis. At first locating information on ancient Rome that had to do with British involvement was difficult because of my lack of knowledge and also lack of primary sourcesRead MoreRhetorical Analysis : The Rhetorical Triangle 1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto logic, and is a way of persuading an audience by reason. TatumÃ¢â¬â¢s reason was based on her opinion, so it was not very effective. Approaching essays using the rhetorical triangle was indeed one of the greatest tools I have used and I thought it was a very simple yet interesting way of approaching essays to make my arguments persuasive. One of the aspects of this class that was also effective was learning that directional elements in the thesis go at the end with nothing else to set the order of
The counterinsurgencies in World War Two and Vietnam are strikingly different precisely because the insurgencies they fought were different. Every insurgency is unique. Some feel that an insurgency carries advantages that make it inherently unbeatable. We will write a custom essay sample on Counterinsurgency in WWII and Vietnam or any similar topic only for you Order Now Because the superior force is rarely prepared for an insurgency they are at a disadvantage from day one. The primary lesson learned from the experiences of World War Two and Vietnam is that counterinsurgency must entail more than just the deployment of superior military forces. An insurgency is not unbeatable. For a counterinsurgency campaign to be successful a carefully devised comprehensive strategy that integrates military, political and humanitarian goals must be devised. Insurgency and Counterinsurgency Defined Insurgency is a broadly defined term. An insurgency can take many forms. Generally speaking, it is an uprising of a smaller, weaker military and political force against the force that occupies power. Because insurgents are almost always outnumbered and lack military equipment, they fight a guerrilla-type war. Their goal is not to defeat the opposing force militarily, but instead to erode it while inflicting as many losses as possible. Insurgents often look for Ã¢â¬Å"soft targetsÃ¢â¬ to attack rather than facing the enemy head-on. The ultimate goal is to fight a low intensity war that drains the opposing side of resources and public support. Robert Smith, in The Utility of Force, describes a common process through which insurgencies begin. First, one political wing separates from a larger party. After arming itself, this wing initiates a low intensity conflict against a larger power. Over time, the larger force is persuaded to cut its losses and withdraw. The insurgent party then goes about establishing a dominant force of its own (Smith, 2007). This cycle is evident in the 1980s insurgency of the Afghans against the Soviet Union and the eventual emergence of the Taliban. In recent years, the term Ã¢â¬Å"insurgencyÃ¢â¬ has also been used to describe any conflict in which groups of foreign fighters enter a country to oppose a larger force. In either case the tactics of insurgency are similar. Counterinsurgency, in turn, is more than just military opposition to the insurgent force. Broadly defined, Counterinsurgency is the attempt by a political power or occupying force to tamp down rebellion. In the late 20th and early 21st century the effectiveness of insurgent tactics has been rediscovered. Media and technological advances have been integrated effectively and, as a result, insurgencies have become more complex. In response, counterinsurgency tactics have been revised and modernized. It is generally recognized that a more comprehensive military, political, economic and cultural effort is now required. Between World War Two and the present day, the nature and scope of counterinsurgency programs changed dramatically. The Vietnam conflict represented a halfway point in that evolutionary process. The learning curve has been irregular, though. As each new insurgency surfaces new lessons must be learned and old lessons re-learned. World War Two: The emergence of modern insurgency and counterinsurgency Insurgency and counterinsurgency are not terms typically used in relation to World War Two. The seeds for the modern usage of both were sown during this era, however. The French resistance is sometimes described as an insurgent campaign. The tactics used by the Germans to counter this insurgency were brutal but ultimately ineffective. In fact, the French Resistance is credited with Ã¢â¬Å"coordinating sabotages and other actions which contributed to the success of Operation OverlordÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 2007). Allied forces even then were aware of the need to work with assets of Ã¢â¬Å"various political colorsÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 2007). In working with insurgents in the early years of the war the Allies gained some knowledge about how to defeat an insurgency. This knowledge, in part, would be capitalized on at the end of World War Two and twenty years later in Vietnam. Meanwhile, the Germans faced a second insurgency from the Soviet Partisans. These were pro-communist Soviets most active in the border regions between Germany and the U. S. S. R. Like in the French resistance, these fighters sabotaged and harassed any vulnerable areas of the German occupiers they could find. Unlike in France, the Germans were never able to install a puppet regime to help them quell the population. The German counterinsurgency strategy was to stamp out any resistance as quickly as possible. The Germans and the Partisans for that matter executed thousands of civilians in this region. Counterinsurgency tactics in World War Two were somewhat primitive. Primarily, the goal was to use overwhelming military force before installing a puppet government favorable to the more powerful force. Terror was the tool for holding on to that power. Tactical reviews after the war provided some valuable information, but were also tainted by the political atmosphere of the day. For example, U. S. reports may have overemphasized the effect of partisans terrorizing the local population into supporting them. The effect of the terror caused by German counterinsurgency forces and other possible ideological reasons for local support were not studied fully enough. In the waning days of the war, remnants of the Nazi SS launched an insurgency of their own. Initial public support kept the insurgency afloat for nearly two years as various sabotages and political assassinations harassed the occupying forces. Eventually Ã¢â¬Å"Operation WerewolfÃ¢â¬ was defeated when the German public became assured that the Allies were committed to rebuilding their nation, through such programs as the Marshall Plan. This stands in sharp contrast to the terroristic methods of counterinsurgency that had been employed in earlier years. While not specifically part of the counterinsurgency program, media control assisted the allies in a way it would not during Vietnam. The greater threat posed to the American nation itself during World War Two led the public to accept tight military control of what was released through newspapers or other media. The media blackout was perhaps more successful for the Germans. Since the German public heard little or no negative news from the front, the Partisans and The French Resistance were never able to erode support for the war within Germany. In this sense, a totalitarian state with vast resources and complete media control has a certain advantage in counterinsurgency over free nations. When World War Two was over, the template of a successful insurgency had been advanced farther than that if a successful counterinsurgency. In the words of U. S. General Robert Smith: By the end of the Second World War, the defining characteristics of the antithesis of industrial war had been established, as a combination of basic guerilla and revolutionary warfare. (Smith, 2007) None the less, Allied knowledge increased from having been on both sides of irregular conflicts. Allied forces would put much of what they had learned about counterinsurgency into action during Vietnam. As always, some lessons had to be re-learned under difficult circumstances. Vietnam: Hard Lessons Researchers are still debating the effectiveness of the counterinsurgency effort in Vietnam. There is no doubt that operations such as Ã¢â¬Å"Market TimeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"PhoenixÃ¢â¬ were more sophisticated than any such efforts in World War Two. Militarily, they were at least partially successful. Efforts such as these combined elements of Allied experiences with what they had learned by studying German methods during World War Two. The military began to create Ã¢â¬Å"strategic hamletsÃ¢â¬ throughout South Vietnam. In order to do so, though, entire villages of civilians would often be relocated. Air assets also sprayed chemical agents on large tracts of farmland growing crops that could be used to help the North Vietnamese. In some cases, large numbers of civilians only suspected of collaborating with the communists were killed. Ironically, at the same time a humanitarian effort was established. USAID personnel, who had 6 months of language immersion and training in nation building, spearheaded the effort. The Military Assistance Command for Vietnam also worked with the National Revolutionary Development Plan to help Vietnamese victims of the war. Even when pacification efforts within Vietnam itself were going well, the insurgents were winning the media war. The Tet offensive was a military defeat for the communists. After Tet Ã¢â¬Å"the flagging rural pacification program picked up momentumÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Chant, 1990). Despite its military success, the counterinsurgency failed in two critical ways. The Vietnamese Communists fought the Ã¢â¬Å"hearts and mindsÃ¢â¬ battle better, giving the peasants promises that had real meaning to them. For instance; the communists promised land loans and lower taxes to peasants (Alexander, 2002). The coalition could never establish a trust relationship with the majority of the population. When Congress cut off funds and recommended that Ã¢â¬Å"ground forces should not be committedÃ¢â¬ the mistrust of the Vietnamese was confirmed (Chant, 1990). In Vietnam, the media was on the front lines of war as never before. Initially the Allies believed that this would be a showcase for the military and would help maintain support for the war. By the end of the war, the insurgents had turned this factor completely in their favor. The North Vietnamese capitalized on American broadcasts and broadcasts of their own, essentially communicating directly to the American people that the war was unwinnable. They rightly assumed that the American media could play a significant role in eroding public support for the war. When the American military tried to exert greater control over the media, distrust and opposition to the war only increased. Analysis and Conclusion Contrary to popular belief, insurgencies have a long track record of success. In fact; Ã¢â¬Å"irregular or guerrilla warfare is, in fact, the most successful form of conflictÃ¢â¬ (Alexander, 2002). It is the repeated failure of major powers to recognize this and anticipate it that itself are the major reasons for insurgent success. In World War Two, insurgencies were relatively contained. In Vietnam and in the 21st century they are not. They are sophisticated multinational operations in which the insurgents sometimes cannot even be identified. World War Two and Vietnam are evidence that insurgency can take many different forms. The overall lesson, however, is the same. The degree of success for a counterinsurgency is directly related to the degree the insurgency was anticipated and planned for. Another clear lesson is that a counterinsurgency employing only military means is destined to fail. The experiences in World War Two and Vietnam do give some clues as to how to deal with the insurgency in Iraq. A comprehensive strategy must be developed that separates the insurgents from those who support them. Then an effective intelligence network with ample numbers of human assets must be developed and maintained. As shown in Iraq the lessons of prior wars are forgotten and must be re-learned. For example, when insurgents were driven out of a town coalition forces would often leave that area undefended. It was not until at least three years into the war that coalition forces began to use the Ã¢â¬Å"take and holdÃ¢â¬ method used in Vietnam more than three decades earlier. The ability to defeat insurgencies in the future depends upon learning and capitalizing on lessons such as these. The first step to defeating an insurgency is to expect one. The second step is to plan a counterinsurgency. Beyond these simple steps the process is incredibly complex and there are no hard and fast rules. Sources Alexander, Bevin. (2002). How Wars are Won: the 13 rules of war from ancient Greece to the War on Terror. New York: Crown Publishers. Chant, Christopher. (1990). The Military History of the United States (Vol. 13). New York: Marshall Cavendish. Markel, Wade. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Draining the Swamp: The British Strategy of Population ControlÃ¢â¬ . Parameters. Retrieved 1/7/2008 from: http://www. carlisle. army. mil/usawc/Parameters/06spring/markel. htm . McClintock, Michael. (2002). Ã¢â¬Å"U. S. Guerrilla Warfare, Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism, 1940-1990Ã¢â¬ . Instruments of Statecraft. Retrieved 1/7/2008 from: http://www. statecraft. org/chapter3. html . Smith, Robert. (2007). The Utility of Force: the art of war in the modern world. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. How to cite Counterinsurgency in WWII and Vietnam, Papers
Kilauea Hawaii Essay Kilauea Hawaii consists of a string of islands, or an archapelago. Kilauea islocated on one of these islands, the central Hawaii island. Kilauea is one ofthe worlds most active volcanic craters. Craters are formed either by themassive collapse of material during volcanic activity, by unusually violentexplosions, or later by erosion during dormancy (Comptons). It is situated onthe southeastern slope of the great volcanic mountain Mauna Loa. Its elevationis 1111 m (3646 ft.) above sea level. The crater has an area of about 10 sq. km., which forms a great cavity in the side of the mountain. Volcanic activityrecently has been restricted to an inner crater called Halemaumau. Halemaumaumeasures more than 900 m (about 3000 ft.) across and has a depth of about 400 m(about 1300 ft.). Kilauea has erupted at least once a year since 1952. Thevolcano spews an average of 525,000 cubic yards of lava a day and by 1995 hadadded about 500 acres of new land to the island (Encarta ?98). By June 1989,it had destroyed the visitors center at the national park, a stretch of KalapanaHighway, and more than 65 houses by 1990. Kilauea is located on a hot spot underthe island, and the magma is thought to come from a depth of at least 50 km. below the surface. A hot spot is an area of volcanic activity near the center oftwo lithospeheric plates. Normally, lava streams constantly into the floor ofthe crater from subterranean sources which either cools and hardens, oraccumulates until it drains off into other subterranean passages. When greatervolcanic activity occurs, the lava is subjected to sudden changes of level,where it may escape from vents on the lower slope toward the sea. Kilauea isclassified as a shield volcano. Shield volcanoes have a low, broad profilecreated by highly fluid basalt flows that spread over wide areas. The fluidbasalt usually only builds a cone around seven degrees steep. Over thousands ofyears though, these cones can reach massive size, which is shown in the HawaiianIsland volcanoes. The Hawaiian Islands are composed of shield volcanoes, thathave been built up from the sea floor. If measured from sea floor level, some ofthe Hawaiian volcanoes are the worlds largest mountains in terms of both hei ghtand volume (Comptons). In the 20th century, major flows occurred in 1920 and1921, 1950, 1955, 1959, 1965, and 1969. The current eruption cycle, thelongest-running in modern Hawaiian history, began on January 3, 1983 (Encarta).
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Describe about fishing industry and also describe their problem, benefit, strategic response, project options analysis and deliverability or recommended solution? Answer: Part 1: Problem Background Blue Sky Fisheries Pty Ltd. is an Australian fishing industry which is based in Adelaide and South Australia. The company provides premium and niche market seafood products to Australian marketplace and international marketplace. The main specialty of the company is sourcing and supplying Australian abalone. The company is well placed in the competitive fishing industry in Australia. The growing population has increased pressure on the company to meet the demands of their customers or clients (ZoomInfo, 2015). Definition of problem The expansion of domestic market and rise in the demand for the Australian seafood in foreign market has increased pressure on the company to harvest resources in sustainable way. If the sustainable innovation is not applied then it can lead to: Environment Issue: The depletion of natural resources is hitting hard to the company to fulfill the demand of the consumers both nationally and internationally. The consumer of seafood are affected as due to increase in number of fishing industry, the company is not able to meet the customers demand every time and decrease in natural resources is escalating matter (Aiyeloja and Ijeomah, n.d.). Employee management: The Company is facing stiff competition from its competitors that is affecting the market share of the company. Moreover, it exerts high pressure on the company to make better strategy every time in order to hold and retain the customers (Dahl, 2011). Due to competition, companys business operation has been affected and employee performance level has declined. Further, this issue is transitory. Wastage of product: The Company is facing problem from the people that are not effectively engaged in fishing of fish or transportation in efficient way. Therefore, the consumers and fishing industries are most affected along with the natural environment. In order to earn higher money, people sideline the amount of wastage. Further, this problem is escalating that can hamper the nature and people in long term (Biggs, 2011). Evidence of the problem Environmental Issue: It is a major issue for the fishing industry as the global use of the fisheries product has increased to 114.5 million tons in 2008 in comparison to 100.7 million tons in 2002. It can be forecasted that in 2030 the global demand for seafood can increase by 37 million tons. Therefore, it can surely be a great threat for the natural resources and for the fishing industry (Davis, 2011). The illegal catching of fish has increased over the years. It has been found that commercial catch fish are sold by the some people to clubs, hotel, restaurants or private individuals in order to gain higher profit. The illegal activity has increased by 33% in 2012 (Aic.gov.au, 2015). Employee Management: The Company is facing competition from Allan Barnett Fishing Co. and J. Manias Co. In the year 2010, Blue Sky sales declined by 2% in 2009 whereas its competitors were able to increase their sales by 2.7% and 3%. Therefore, in order to remain in the race the competitors train their employees so that their sales and income can be increased (Dixon and McGregor, 2011). Wastage of product: In the year 2010, the company has wasted around 30% of the fish product which shows the improper management-ship of the company (Greenfacts.org, 2015). Timing Considerations The government can play important role in checking the fishing issues and problems for the environment and global market. The government can impose various regulations over the percentage of fishing so that sustainable environment can be maintained. On the other hand, government can pose penalties if they find that overfishing is done in spite of warning. In order to sustain the natural environment and its species, the government has to take steps to generate a better and sustainable environment (Hallwass et al., 2010). This would help in providing better world to the people. Apart from that, if the proper are steps are not taken in right time then it can decrease the level of service and the consumer may not be able to fulfill their demand for seafood or fish product. Moreover, if government fails in implementing the strict rules then it can increase the level of illegal fishing and there can be time when there will be no fish in the lakes (Palomares and Pauly, 2011). On the other hand, if response is delayed then it can lead to a wide gap to operate the proposed amendments. The customers can be charged high price for the sea products that can affect the economy of the country. Therefore, solution has to be implemented on accurate time so that all the process can be carried in legalized form (Oecd.org, 2015). Consideration of the broader context The illegal catch of the fish is a major issue outside of the Blue Sky as well. The local fishermen are having problem as they are not able to acquire right percentage of fish due to illegal behavior of catching fish. The sale of the local fishermen in Adelaide has decreased that made some fishermen to adopt illegal activities. Therefore, the issues of local fishermen can be addressed in the proposal so that best solution can be predicted that can benefit both the company and local fishermen (Pcfisu.org, 2015). Part 2: Benefits Benefits to be delivered A better sustainable innovation environment can be gained if the natural resources issues are resolved. Moreover, it can help in enhancing the quality of environment and natural resources can be kept safe and pure. The investment in the making natural resources sustain and survive can have a long term impact and people can be able to see number of fish (Pearce, 2005). On the other hand, in case of growing employee management issue among fishing industry, the Blue Sky Company can be able to meet their requirement of having fish or sea product in maximum quantity. This would help the company to survive in the market place (Rizzuto and Soares, 2012). The company can make investment to build better organizational system in order to preserve and store the sea food for a period of time. Apart from that, the solution to the wastage problem can be put to an end. This would be effective in ensuring large number of fish from rivers. The company can be able to provide quality and delicious seafood to the society and it can help in increasing the customer engagement (Seitz and Hite, 2011). Moreover, the local fishermen can be able to carry on their activities with much easy approach. Therefore, the solution to the problem would help in increasing the GDP of the country and it can increase the economical value of the company. On the other side, the company can be able to largely contribute towards the society and increasing their living standard (Donaldson, 2011). Lastly, the impact of the solution can be on the environment that can be effective for the people to have sustainable environment. Apart from the benefit, the company may not be able to increase their profit if government imposes harsh legislation and regulation on fishing and it can lead to increase in price of seafood (Ctb.ku.edu, 2015). Importance of Benefits to Government and Organization The government and organization can get large benefit for the investment. The company can be increasing their level of fish storage and they can supply required of quantity to the consumers. On the other hand, the company can increase the sales rate and earn better income. The investment in natural resources can help the government to safeguard the natural resources and monitor the depletion rate of fish in the lakes or river. Further, it can help the company to achieve sustainable environment and better reach to the natural resources without affecting the natural environment (Graf and Kimms, 2011). The negative effect of employee management by companies on the fishing can be checked and government can be able to track the companies that are not abiding the rules that are laid down in context to employee. Moreover, it can be positive for the company to have an equal chance of fishing and collecting the fish from the river (Greene and Kirton, 2011). Therefore, it can help in providing better competitive environment. Lastly, the investment in controlling wastage can be effective for the government to achieve better economic environment. The implementation of sustainable fishing can help in protecting the livelihoods of the people. Moreover, on the part of company, it can help in promoting sustainable fishing and can fulfill the nutritional needs of the people (Hallwass et al., 2010). Evidence of benefit delivery Environmental Issues: It can be found that implementing the solution to the respective issues has helped in improving the marine ecosystem. The people are more careful towards the natural environment and focuses to have less destruction of the natural resources (Holland, 2007). The company is able to use the natural resources in efficient manner that is helping in making people aware about the benefits of having natural resources. Employee management: It has been discovered that number of workers have increased their performance and are engaging in company activities. Therefore, company is able to engage around 10 million tons of fish from the ocean in the year 2011 (Kumari et al., 2010). Thus, company is able to export fish to foreign market as per requirements. Wastage: The workers doing unethical activities and not controlling wastage can be checked and it helped in decreasing the level of wastage. Therefore, it helps in increasing the efficiency of the company and it increases the productivity of the company (Malakoff, 2011). The overfishing level has been decreased by 40% and people have become more responsible towards the natural resources. Interdependencies The major interdependency that relates to benefit delivery is using other existing proposals so that better solution can be gained in order to solve the arising issues. The management of the company can adopt the decision that is made by US government to improve the fishing industry (Rizzuto and Soares, 2012). Moreover, the companies can reliance on the step taken by Marine Publications Pty Ltd to improve their business operation and supply better quality of product to customers. Part 3: Strategic Response Method and Criteria The company has to adopt strategic action so that rising issues can be resolved. Therefore, in order to sort out the issues, strategic response can be: Plan: The Company has to plan from the very first stage to assess the potential issues so that strategy can be made. The management can engage employers and employees for formulating plan. Risk: The risk associated with the particular strategy has to be assessed in order to know the level of risk that may need to be handled while operating with such strategies. Organizational Culture: The management has to understand the internal culture whether the chosen strategy can be helpful in achieving the long term goal or not. Workers Attitude: The behavior and attitude of the workers or employees has to be understood so that better strategy can be implemented and better productivity can be gained. Social Support: The support from the society can be helpful for the company to solve their problem and provide better service to customers (Pearce, 2005). Regulation: The Company may need to improve their regulation relating to transport, production or relating to employees so that better work environment can be generated. Policies: The policies can be developed in order to sustainable growth and attaining sustainable environment in fishing sector. It can improve the business operation (Tietze, 2011). Foster Innovation: The Company can implement innovative ideas so that quality fish product can be developed and supplied and also wastage can be reduced. Strategic Option Analysis The strategic options can be effective for the Blue Sky to achieve better growth and increase their sale to domestic and international market. On the other hand, the options can be helpful for the company to solve the internal and external issues and generate feasible and effective work environment (Uwah et al. n.d.). The company can be able to develop sustainable environment and reduction in wastage. Strategic Interventions The interventions can be valuable in changing the behavior of employees to have a positive attitude towards the work. For instance, the knowledge and skills of the individual worker can be influenced that improved the performance of the company by 25%. The employees can become more responsible towards environment and customers. On the other hand, the company can provide better social support to the people by promoting educational programs or health promotion campaign (Trujillo and Thurman, 2014). Apart from that, the environment promotion campaign intervention can be effective in making people aware about the natural resources benefit and it can provide knowledge to reduce wastage as it can help in developing better environment. Recommended Strategic Option The company can formulate flexible regulation and policies as it can help in extracting better performance of the employees. Moreover, the employees can become more responsible towards the society and environment (Biggs, 2011). The Blue Sky can be able to fulfill the demands of consumers and can be able to extract the required sea species in order to satisfy the need of customers. Part 4: Project Options Analysis Project Options Considered Cost-effectiveness Analysis: This analysis can be effective in making comparison of different alternatives so that expenses can be predicted. The options can be effective in reducing the net present value of costs or increasing the output level. Multi-criteria Analysis: The suite of various objectives can be dealt that may not be aggregated into a single result. Therefore, in order to use the multi-criteria analysis, the project has to be analyzed whether it can fulfill the requirements of analysis or not (Connelly and Brown, 2010). Evaluate economic Impact: The impact analysis has been used that deliver economic benefit on the project. The high level economic indicator has been used to assess the strategic intervention so that better result can be gained. Demand Analysis: The current demand for the seafood has been assessed that helped in forecasting the future demand for the product. The option has been selected that are more necessary (Daczkowska-Kozon and Sun-Pan, 2011). Review of staff requirements: The right number of staff has been selected that helped in carrying the project in effective manner. The training needs and role requirements has been focused so that job can be assigned. Stakeholder Identification and Consultation The major stakeholder that are related with the project options are marketer, human resource management, statisticians and financial advisers. The financial adviser will help in studying the cost-effectiveness of the project so that cost can be analyzed. On the other hand, the statistician of the company will help in performing multi-criteria analysis by segmenting the number of options on the basis of similar objectives. The financial analyst can help the company to know the economic impact on the performance or vice versa (Donaldson, 2011). The marketer will assist in providing information about demand for the product so that sales can be forecasted for future. Lastly, the human resource management of company can deliver skillful and capable employees that can help in increasing the productivity. Social Impacts The proposal can be effective in providing better social system. The company can be able to provide quality service and better quality product to the society or consumers. The scale options can be effective in providing better facilities to society and meeting their needs (Ellerup Nielsen and Narreklit, 2011). Environmental Impacts The options can have positive impact on the environment. The company can be able to generate environment that can be beneficial for the internal and external people. The Environment Law laid down by government has to be followed along with Health and Employees Law so that they can comply with the current environment and carry on their activities in productive manner (Malik, 2011). Economic Impacts The options can have large impact on the economy that can improve the quality of the system and can increase the productivity that can help in increasing the GDP of the country. Moreover, the employees can be motivated effectively to participate in the companys decision making process or deliver best ideas that can best suit the requirement of company (Navia and Heipieper, 2011). On the other hand, company can be able to provide employment to the people that can be effective in reducing the unemployment level and increasing the standard of living of people. Overall evaluation of socio-economic and environmental impacts The company can be able to supply better social and economic environment that can help in increasing the profit and market share of the company. The company can deliver better quality product to the society and standard living (Palomares and Pauly, 2011). On the other hand, it can be useful in providing sustainable environment and pollution free that can improve the health of the people or workers. Cost Benefit Analysis Cost Amount ($) Storage Cost 40000 Labor Cost 80000 Material Cost 35000 Raw material Costs 30000 Supplier Costs 10000 Administrative Costs 50000 Inspection Charges 4800 Training Cost 4000 Machine Installation Cost 15000 Utilities 2000 License Charge 10000 TOTAL 280800 Benefit The company can be able to store the fish product till the time of its consumption and it can help the company increase their sales and income. On the other hand, the company can fulfill the demand of the society for seafood. On the other hand, meeting the cost of supplier, the company required quantity of fish and raw materials for proving quality product to customers (Pcfisu.org, 2015). Moreover, the skills of the worker can be developed and better productivity can be generated that can contribute in improving the growth rate of the company. Financial analysis In order to gain an estimate that can be used for the project, net present value estimation can be effective. The npv can be useful for the company to make decision and decide future budget in order to conduct the business operations. Project option 1: Do Nothing Project option 2: Do minimum Project option 3: Do something Project option 4: Do maximum Project option 5: Analysis Period (years) 5 5 5 5 5 Capital Costs ($m) 2500 2808 2997 3350 3000 Output Costs ($m) 1800 2100 2500 2800 2750 Cost-Benefit Analysis Present Value of Benefits ($m) 5100 5700 6300 4752 Present Value of Costs ($m) 4800 5500 5700 4388 Benefit Cost Ratio 1.06 1.03 1.10 1.82 Net Present Value ($m) 5202.48 5662 6765 5752 Preferred option 4 3 3 1 2 Table 1: Results of Option Analysis Therefore, it can be analyzed that according to option 4, company can be able to generate better productivity after 5 years that can help in achieving organizational goals. The company can recover all their cost and sale rate can be increased. Therefore, the company can provide quality service to customers. Part 5: Deliverability of Recommended Solution Details of Recommended solution After considering the option analysis table, it can be observed that adopting option 4 can be beneficial for the company, Blue Sky to earn high income after 5 years. The company can be able to increase the sale of fish product by 43% that can ensure better profit and organizational effectiveness (Vasil'ev, 2011). Moreover, various direct and indirect costs can be covered and company can generate better market share. On the other hand, the problem of environment issues can be resolved and company can get required quantity of fish for their business and pollution level from the industry can be resolved. Therefore, it can help in generating better quality product for the customers. Apart from that, company can be able to generate expected NPV if the company is successful in managing employees (Weston, 2009). Commercial and financial Procurement: The PPP procurement approach can be taken in account that can be effective in securing the value for money. The company can innovate and integrate their strategy for gaining development and risk can be transferred effectively. The procurement options range comprises; designs build; design build finance, design build maintain; design build finance maintain and design build finance operate (Ruxton and Hansell, 2010). The DBFM can be effective to improve asset life cycle performance of the company. Risk assessment and management Resources Risk: The lack of available resources that is fish can be major risk for the company. The growing fishing industry can deplete the marine life and percent of fish may not be available (Malakoff, 2011). Therefore, the company has to promote the awareness about fishing and company can store the fish product so that wastage can be controlled and resource risk can be minimized. Competition Risk: In order to combat the competition situation, the company has to provide quality product all the time and the product has to be transported in quick time. This can help in retaining the customers and maintain the market share. Supplier Risk: If the supplier of risk is not satisfied with the service of company then it can be difficult to negotiate with the customers. Therefore, company has to provide right wages to suppliers for their services (Herpandi et al. 2011). Employee Risk: If the employee is not able to perform their task effectively then it can decrease the brand value of company. Thus, company may need to provide training or better packages so that they can eject better productivity from workers. Detailed Costing and Economic Evaluation ELEMENT ESTIMATE Base cost estimate $573500 Base risk allocation $116100 Project cost estimate $297400 Contingency $61300 Project Budget $1048300 Table 2: Summary of project cost Cost Estimate Direct Costs: Materials 40000 Labour 60000 Plant Hire 100000 Indirect Costs Recurrent Overheads Commercial 15000 QA and safety 10000 Project Management Costs 8500 Site Facilities 7000 Plant and equipment 35000 Non-recurrent overheads Project Insurance 80000 Professional fees 20000 Demobilization and disestablishment 9000 Mobilization and Establishment 35000 Owners Cost Authority Fees 9000 Investigations 5000 Contracted Professional Staff 13000 Land Cost and resumptions 45000 Plant and equipment supplied by owner 15000 Contractors Fee Profit Margin 37000 Corporate Overheads 30000 Total of Base Cost Estimate $573500 Table 3: Base Cost Computation ELEMENT ESTIMATE Base Risk Allocation 80500 Escalation 35600 Contingency 61300 Total of Project Risks $177400 Table 4: Project Risk Year Cash Flow Discount Rate (10%) Present Value of Cash Flow 1 650000 0.909 590850 2 730000 0.826 602980 3 785600 0.751 589990 4 836600 0.683 571400 5 995100 0.620 617880 TOTAL 2973100 Costs 1048300 Net present Value $1924800 Funding Sources In order to fund the proposed project, the Blue Sky can generate fund from various sources: Banks: The Company can grant loan from the banks such as Macquarie Bank Limited so that the work can be carried forward. Granting loan from the bank is easy and can be paid at regular specified intervals (Hattis, 2012). Sale of Assets: The Blue Sky can sale their assets that are not in use or unprofitable. The assets can be disposed that provide capital to the company for funding in the project. Therefore, it can help company to achieve the desired target of capital. Companys owner: The owner of Blue Sky can contribute major portion of the capital for the business purpose and if company makes profit then it can ensure high income for the owner. Mortgage: The Company can mortgage their property in order to acquire capital and can release the property when the company makes profit and pays for the profit from earned profit (Gonzalo-Delgado et al. 2010). Management In order to gain higher profit, the company has to manage its business activities so that work of the employees can be aligned towards the target. The senior management of the company has to monitor the performance of the company and on the other hand the production manager has to check the availability of raw materials or any other requirements so that production can be management and availed in right time with least amount of wastage (Greene and Kirton, 2011). The management has to communicate with the stakeholders of the company so that better decision can be made. Apart from that, the strategy has to be made for managing project so that it can be assessed on every stage of development and error can be removed. Delivery Blue Sky in order to bring productivity, it has to implement change management strategy so that operation can be conducted on successful note. The employees can be retrained and supply chain management can be re-engineered so that better service can be provided to customers (Hallwass et al. 2010). On the other hand, the performance measure has to be adopted for assessing the quantity and quality in order to deliver higher and quality productivity to nation. Readiness and next steps The Blue Sky Company has to be ready and has to be attentive to make transition of investment in correct time so that chain of operation does not stop. The alertness of the company can help in tackling the possible challenges related to sustainable innovation programs. The company has to resolve all the issues relating to staffing so that better working staff can be engaged in the next step of operation (Kumari et al. 2010). The job has to be made understood to the staffs so that they can carry their work in respective manner. Therefore, if the company succeeds in their approach then it can help in achieving the sustainable innovation environment and better employee engagement. Exit Strategy The program that are not resulting beneficial for the company has to be eliminated and better program has to be built in order to attain the desire goal. For instance, if the businesses not doing well, the acquisition exit strategy can be effective to remain in the marketplace and operate the business as it can allow having good money to clear debts. On the other hand, the company can be able to minimize their risk of loss and company can be able to organize their business operations effectively (Palomares and Pauly, 2011). Apart from that, if a sustainable innovation program fails the alternative programs can be helpful as it can help in protecting to suffer any big loss. Reference List Aic.gov.au, (2015). Crime in the Australian fishing industry. [online] Available at: https://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi366.pdf [Accessed 14 Jan. 2015]. Aiyeloja, A. and Ijeomah, H. (n.d.). Book of reading in forestry, wildlife management and fisheries. 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